World tilapia production has risen from 830,000 tonnes in 1990 to 1.6 million tonnes in 1999 and again to 2.5 million tonnes in 2005 (Josupeit, 2007). China is the world's largest producer of the tilapia, producing over one million tonnes in 2005, followed by Egypt (300,000 tonnes), Indonesia, Philippines (200,000 tonnes each) and Thailand (100,000 tonnes). By 2010, world tilapia production is expected to reach 3.5 million tonnes (Josupeit, 2007).
The object of this study was to conduct the ability of two medicinal herbs, namely rosemary and parsley, for amelioration of aflatoxicosis in Oreochromis niloticus. Two herbs' extracts at three concentrations of either (0, 2 and 4 g kg-1 B.W. divided into 2 doses at the start and the 6th day of the experiment) and three concentrations of aflatoxin B1, (AFB1 0, 9 and 18 mg kg-1 B.W. as a single intraperitoneal administration) were tested either individually or in combination.
What Is a Virus?
Viruses are very small infectious agents that multiply only within the living cells of an animal or plant host. Other microorganisms, such as bacteria or fungi, have organelles for their own metabolism, but viruses do not. They must utilize the machinery of the infected host cell for growth and reproduction.
Vibrio infections usually occur in fish from marine and estuarine environments, and have been reported throughout the world. Occasionally, vibriosis is reported in freshwater fish. The disease can cause significant mortality (=>50%) in fish culture facilities once an outbreak is in progress. Common names for Vibrio infections of fish include "red pest" of eels, "salt-water furunculosis", "red boil", and "pike pest". Vibrio infections can spread rapidly when fish are confined in heavily stocked, commercial systems and morbidity may reach 100% in affected facilities.
Feed transformation into biomass gain it’s a process that starts in the digestive system of the animal. As such, its health status and its functionality correlate directly with the economic results of the farmer. From mammalian research it is well known that the gastrointestinal tract is responsive and sensitive to a wide range of stressors. Some of the more common features are degeneration of the intestinal mucosa and perturbation of its barrier function and uptake mechanisms. Closely connected with the state of health of the gut is a well balanced intestinal micro-flora, which helps the digestive and absorptive process and protects the host against invading pathogens.